The creation of cartels increased worldwide after the First World War. They have become the first form of market organization, particularly in Europe and Japan. In the 1930s, authoritarian regimes such as Nazi Germany, Mussolini-led Italy and Spain under the Franco cartels used agreements to organize their corporatist economies. Between the end of the 19th century and around 1945, the United States was ambivalent about cartels and trusts. There have been periods of resistance to market concentration and relative tolerance of cartels. During World War II, the United States made a strong move away from the cartels. [8] After 1945, market liberalism promoted by the Americans led to a worldwide ban on cartels, which continues to hamper cartels in an increasing number of countries and circumstances. The Competition and Consumer Protection Act not only prohibits civil law agreements, but also makes the company and the private sector an offence of participating in an agreement. In non-collusive agreements, companies would seek to improve their production or product in order to gain a competitive advantage. In a cartel, these companies are not encouraged to do so. Today, price-fixing by private companies is illegal under antitrust laws in more than 140 countries. Among the raw materials of the international cartels prosecuted are lysine, citric acid, graphite electrodes and mass vitamins.

[24] Many countries are convinced that cartels are contrary to free and fair competition, which is seen as the backbone of political democracy. [25] Maintaining agreements is becoming increasingly difficult for agreements. Although international agreements cannot be regulated as a whole by individual nations, their individual activities in national markets are affected. [26] Two or more companies agree to share the market with each other and not operate in each other`s sectors. This can be a geographical distribution, a breakdown by category of customers, etc. Market-sharing agreements can be manifested as follows: agreements often operate at low prices internationally. If the price control agreement is sanctioned by a multilateral treaty or protected by national sovereignty, no measures on cartels and abuses of dominance can be initiated. [14] OPEC countries partially control the price of oil and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) sets international airfares, while the organization is exempt from antitrust rules. [15] [16] The best known example is the Medellin Cartel, led by Pablo Escobar in the 1980s until his death in 1993.

The cartel is known to have smuggled large quantities of cocaine into the United States and was known for its violent methods. An agreement is a group of independent operators who work together to improve their profits and dominate the market. Agreements are generally associations in the same industry and are therefore an alliance of rivals. Most jurisdictions consider this to be anti-competitive behaviour. Cartel practices include pricing, bid manipulation and production reduction. The economics doctrine that analyzes cartels is the cartel theory. Agreements are different from other forms of collusion or anti-competitive organizations such as corporate mergers. European law provides exceptions for certain categories of research and development agreements, technology transfer and specialisation.

The main reason for creating agreements is protection from “ruinous” competition, which is said to make the benefits of the industry as a whole too low. The agreement must provide for the equitable distribution of global market share among all competing companies. Among the most common practices of agreements in maintaining and enforcing the monopoly position of their sector are price-fixing, the allocation of sales quotas or exclusive sales areas and productive activities among members, the guarantee of a minimum profit for each member, and agreements on terms of sale. , discounts, discounts and